The "art of the boil"...and other botanical preparation theories...

Are you a "soaker" or a "boiler", or a "boil and soak" kind of "botanical prepper?"

Sounds ridiculous to the uninitiated; however, as you know, those are important things in our world! We've developed our favorite protocols for botanical preparation over the years, and as our community grows, we see more and more evolution of this technique. We've even created our evolving "document", an entire section on "Aquatic Botanical Preparation" on our website, which- we're going to go out on a limb and just say it- might just be the most comprehensive guide to botanical preparation for aquarium use ever produced! (chest beating here...)

Preparation of your botanicals is, in our humble opinion, one of the absolutely most critical steps you can take to assure success in your blackwater, botanical-style aquarium adventure. It can "set the tone" for your aquarium right from the start, so it's critical to have a working knowledge of this process before you get underway.

One of the first things you realize when you see posts from our community is that we're really into boiling stuff that we place in our aquariums. Boiling accomplishes a lot of things, as we'll examine below. And it's one of the realities that "goes with the territory" when you embark on a botanical/blackwater "journey."

What exactly is the definition of boilng, anyways? Well, boiling is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the pressure placed on the liquid by its surrounding atmosphere. 

And- why do we boil stuff that we add to our aquariums in the first place?

Well, to begin with, consider that boiling water is used as a method of making water potable by killing microbes that may be present. Most nasty microbes "check out" at temperatures greater than 60 °C (140 °F). For a high percentage of microbes, if water is maintained at 70 °C (158 °F) for ten minutes, many organisms are killed, but some are more resistant to heat and require one minute at the boiling point of water. (FYI the boiling point of water is 100 °C, or 212 °F)...But for the most part, most of the nasty bacteria that we don't want in either our tanks or our stomachs are eliminated by this simple process. Ten minutes of boiling is "golden", IMHO.

So, for one reason, we boil botanicals to kill any possible microorganisms which might be present on them. Leaves, seed pods, etc. have been exposed to rain and dust and all sorts of things in the natural environment which, in the confines of an aquarium, could contribute to the degradation of the water.

Also, the surfaces and textures of many botanical items, such as leaves and seed pods lend themselves to retaining dirt, soot, dust, and other atmospheric pollutants that, although likely harmless in the grand scheme of things, are not stuff you want to start our with in your tank.

We give all of our botanicals a good rinse. Then we boil.

Boiling also serves to soften botanicals. If you remember your high school Botany, leaves, for example, are surprisingly complex structures, with multiple layers designed to reject pollutants, facilitate gas exchange, drive photosynthesis, and store sugars for the benefit of the plant on which they're found. As such, it's important to get them to release some of the materials which might be bund up in the epidermis (outer layers) of the leaf.  As we get deeper into the structure of a leaf, we find the mesophyll, a layer of tissue in which much of photosynthesis takes place.



We use only dried leaves in our botanical style aquariums, because these leaves from deciduous trees, which naturally fall of the trees in seasons of inclement weather, have lost most of their chlorophyll and sugars contained within the leaf structures. This is important, because having these compounds present, as in living leaves, contributes excessively to the bioload of the aquarium when submerged...

Many of us rinse, then steep our leaves rather than a prolonged boil, for the simple fact that exposure to the newly-boiled water will accomplish the potential "kill" of unwanted organisms, which at the same time softening the leaves by permeating the outer tissues. This way, not only will the "softened" leaves "go to work" right away, releasing the beneficial tannins and humic substances bound up in their tissues, they will sink, too! 

And of course, I know many who simply "rinse and drop", and that works for them, too!

It's not a perfect science- this leaf preparation "thing." However, over the years, aquarists have developed simple approaches to leaf prep that work with a high degree of reliability. Now, there are some leaves, such as Magnolia, which take a longer time to saturate and sink because of their thick waxy cuticle layer. And there are others, like Loquat and Teak, which can be undeniably "crispy", yet when steeped begin to soften and work just fine.

So why do we soak after boiling?

Well, it's really a personal preference thing. I feel that it releases any remaining pollutants and undesirable organics that might have been bound up in the leaf tissues and released by boiling, which is certainly arguable, but is also, IMHO, a valid point. And since we're a company dedicated to giving our customers the best possible outcomes- we recommend being conservative and employing the soak. The soak could be for an hour or two, or real "science" to it. Some aquarists would argue that you're wasting all of those valuable tannins and humic substances when you soak the leaves overnight after boiling. My response has always been that you might lose some, but since the leaves have a "lifespan" of weeks, even months, and since you'll see tangible results from them (i.e.; tinting of the water) for much of this "operational lifespan, an overnight soak is no big deal in the grand scheme of things.

Do what's most comfortable for you- and okay for your fishes.

When it comes to to other botanicals, such as seed pods, the preparation is very similar. Again, most seed pods have tougher exterior features, and require prolonged boiling and soaking periods to release any surface dirt and contaminants, and to saturate their tissues to get them to sink when submerged! 


And quite simply, each botanical item "behaves" just a bit differently, and many will require slight variations on the theme of "boil and soak", some testing your patience as they may require multiple "boils" or prolonged soaking in order to get them to saturate and sink.

In the end, preparation techniques for aquatic botanicals are as much about prevention as they are about "preparation." By taking the time to properly prepare your botanical additions for use in the aquarium, you're doing all that you can to exclude unwanted bacteria and microorganisms, surface pollutants, excess of sugars and other unwelcome compounds, etc. from entering into your aquarium. 

Like so many things in our evolving "practice" of perfecting the blackwater, botanical-style aquarium, developing, testing, and following some basic "protocols" is never a bad thing. And understanding some of the "hows and whys" of the process and the reasons for embracing it will hopefully instill into our community the necessity- and pleasures- of going slow, taking the time, observing, tweaking, and evolving our "craft"- for the benefit of the entire aquarium community.

And one of the best things about this process- like so many that we engaged in with our unique sector- is that we all have the opportunity to contribute to our body of knowledge, practice, and the "state of the art" of the blackwater, botanical-style aquarium. Everyone's contribution is not only welcome- it's a vital part of the process.

Isn't that cool?

Stay involved. Stay inquisitive. Stay persistent. Stay engaged.

And Stay Wet.


Scott Fellman

Tannin Aquatics 





Scott Fellman
Scott Fellman


1 Response

Lee ramsell
Lee ramsell

June 02, 2020

Superb intro I’m following your guidelines thank you very much 👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻

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