September 18, 2015


Quarantine...yet again!

Ok, I'm just gonna come right out and say it....

If you aren't quarantining all of your new fish purchases, and some kind of disinfectant protocol for your plants, you should also consider buying a lottery ticket, or financing that crazy online edible balloon bouquet business that your 18-year-old niece is concocting...You might want to bet on the 100-1 underdog in the Super Bowl this year, Dance across Grand Central Parkway in rush hour traffic, or attempt to climb K-2 in the late Fall.

Yeah, you'd be classified as a risk taker, for sure!

Why is that?

Well, let's put it this way- if you aren't utilizing some type of quarantine protocol, you're rolling the dice and betting that you'll avoid introducing  disease into your tank. It's kind of a risk...

Before we touch on the ridiculously simple quarantine procedures you could employ, let's de-bunk some of the common excuses I always hear for not quarantining newly-received fishes :

1) "My LFS/online vendor quarantines all his fish for two weeks before selling them!" Yeah, just before he releases them into his system with fishes from all over the world, with common filtration, equipment, nets, etc. C'mon, it's great that the vendor takes the extra time to do this, and believe me- it speaks volumes about their dedication and level of care- but you cannot rely on a third party to quarantine your animals. In a store or holding facility, there is just too much activity- incoming fish, "accidental" releases of non-quarantined animals into the sales tanks on a busy week, mixing of nets, siphon hoses, filter media, etc. for their not to be some risk of exposure. Sure, you're way better off than if the dealer didn't quarantine, and you should support businesses that employ the practice- but how do you KNOW that the fish were properly quarantined? You can't be too sure...Trust NO ONE...Everyone needs to take some responsibility for their tanks, despite the best efforts of others.

2) "I know the guy I get my plants from. He never has any pests in his tanks. No need to inspect or dip.” Really? Surely you're not believing yourself here...Have you spent hours inspecting every single plant from your buddy's tank with a mesoscope? Hydra, planarians, yuck. I mean, all good intentions aside, there's still a lot of potential for disaster here. You're not at the person's tank 24/7. You don't know when the last time something might have been accidentally introduced, you can't be sure if one of the plants in the tank had some resident pests that escaped detection, and are simply waiting for a fresh start in a new environment...You just don't know..

3) "It's too expensive to set up a quarantine tank." Or, "I don't have the room." Man, I'm gonna have to hit you upside the head with a 100-micron filter sock, aren't I? Don't MAKE me get nasty...Let's dispatch these two classic excuses with a swift blow: IT'S NOT COMPLICATED, EXPENSIVE, OR SPACE-EATING TO SET UP A SMALL, TEMPORARY QUARANTINE SYSTEM!!! It's just NOT! I'll wager that you spent more on the last batch of trendy Mbuna from you favorite importer than it does to set up such a system! (And no, I'm not lowering my aquatic botanical prices so that you can afford a quarantine tank...LOL. You're being a real smart Alec, aren't you? Good try...LOL)



Ok, seriously, all wisecracking and characteristic smart-ass tone aside, there is really no excuse for not practicing some form of quarantine. It's about personal aquatic responsibility...Just like you're hesitant to leave your beloved tanks in the care of someone else when you go out of town, why leave it to the store, online vendor, or your buddy to be the one responsible for quarantining your fish and plants before you purchase them? It's just not worth the potential problems..Once you've battled an outbreak of Ich or Velvet in your tank, or an episode or two of pests in your plants, you'll understand what I'm getting at. Why wait until disaster strikes before taking action? A proactive aquarist is a successful aquarist!

"So, Fellman- what do I need to do this?"

Glad you asked...Here we go.

Okay, you need an aquarium or other water-holding vessel of suitable size to hold the animals that you want to quarantine. For sake of argument, most small fishes can be quarantined in a small aquarium from 5 -20 gallons in size. If you've priced inexpensive "loss leader" tanks at the LFS, you'll be pleasantly surprised to find that they don't cost all that much. In fact, I've seen 10 gallon tanks for under $15.00 at many pet shops and LFS's. 

Next, you'll need a filter of some sort...Not to worry. For a QT (quarantine tank), you don't need a custom, state of the art sump or over-the-top canister filter. Get a cheap, air-powered sponge filter. Get two or three, in fact. Place the sponges in the sump of your main display aquarium, and let them just "marinate" for a few weeks.In the sump, they are colonizing beneficial bacteria that will help brake down nitrogenous wastes. By having one or two sponge filters ready to go at all times, you're "impulse-buy impervious", meaning that you can easily rationalize the next purchase from Tannin or someone else, because you'll be ready to quarantine! 


When the time comes to pull the trigger on your next purchase, you take the empty aquarium, fill it with water from your display aquarium (easily obtained from your regular weekly water change...Wait a second. You are doing a weekly water change, right? C'mon, don't make me write another article on the topic...I will...), hook up the sponge filter, throw in an appropriately-sized aquarium heater, and voila, you've got a ready-to-go QT! And no, you don’t leave it running all the time, you don't need sand, or resident fish...A QT is a temporary feature. You set it up when you need it and break it down when you're done. Think about this: The "eyesore" will only last a few weeks (I recommend at least a two to three week quarantine period...30 days is better), and the fish are already getting a chance to acclimate to your display system's water parameters, etc. This will make adding them to the display at the end of the quarantine period a snap!

I would recommend a brief dip for your fishes before placing them in quarantine.

You can compensate for the accumulation of waste products in the QT by performing weekly water changes with water from your display..What a great excuse for a water change, right?

During the quarantine period, observe your fishes daily for signs of problems. Diseases and pests will manifest themselves during a 21-30 day quarantine period, and you'll be able to take more aggressive treatment methods in a QT than you ever could in your  display, right? And you'll have the added ability to get those fishes accustomed to your foods, maintenance practices, and environmental conditions before they ever make it into your display!


Once you engage in a quarantine protocol- ANY quarantine protocol- you'll enjoy a higher level of control, observation, and general "reefer-awareness" than ever before. In short- you'll become a better reefer. Seriously. You will. You'll be joining the many thousands of successful hobbyists, professional industry types, and public aquariums worldwide that employ such procedures to assure success. This little rant is by no means the last word- or even the first word- on the subject. There is a lot more information out there, and I encourage you to research this practice. And, in the tradition of my "open source" attitude on the stuff on this form, please, PLEASE pass on your suggestions, experiences, etc with quarantine, so that everyone here can benefit! The tank you might save could be your own!


So, please, PLEASE think twice- or even three times- before dismissing the idea of a quarantine protocol. It's easy, relatively inexpensive, and undeniably valuable.

Ok, I'm going to jump off my soapbox now. Time for me to find another thing to push you to do.

Until next time, 

Stay wet.


Scott Fellman

Tannin Aquatics



September 17, 2015


10 Characteristics common to successful aquarists- and their aquariums!

I was fortunate to visit the large aquarium of a friend of mine recently, which I hadn’t seen in some time. The aquarium was beautiful, with crystal clear water, lush growth of plants, and happy, active fishes. It caused me to reflect on the fact that, every time I visit a successful aquarium, I almost can go into a mental “checklist” of attributes that seem to be in place. 

I figured that it’s about time a memorialize them! 

 So here, not listed in any particular order, are 10 characteristics of successful aquarists and their aquariums. Sure, there are probably dozens more attributes, but here are some of the most obvious that I’ve noted over the years:

1) The aquarium is not overstocked- The hobbyist has used common sense in adding livestock to the aquarium. Plants and fishes are not forced to compete for space, current, light, dissolved oxygen, and other resources, because the hobbyist has restrained himself/herself from cramming every possible animal into the tank.


2) The aquarist engages in a regular program of maintenance- ranging from water changes to media replacement, to simple things like changing light bulbs or cleaning lenses. Maintenance issues are not taken care of “whenever”, or “when I feel like it”; rather, they are scheduled and a more-or-less regular interval of maintenance is adhered to.



3) The aquarium has a “theme"- In other words, it’s not just a random aggregation of animals- a little of this and a little of that. Rather, the aquarist has stocked his/her system along the lines that the bulk of the fishes and plants are from the Amazon, for example- or are bottom-dwelling fishes. Perhaps a collection of Loaches…whatever.  Mixes of every conceivable type of fish and plants are typically avoided.



4) Some form of chemical filtration is used- ranging from activated carbon to organic scavenger resins, and every type of media in between. These materials are regularly attended to and replaced as needed.


5) The aquarist is very engaged in his or her system- In other words, they enjoy more than just looking at the animals- they are involved in one way or another in many aspects of the system  design, maintenance, stocking, tweaking, and even just observing the aquarium on a regular basis.


6) The aquarist knows about each and every animal in the system- Sure, he or she may not know every scientific fact, but they have a working knowledge of what is in there, what it needs to thrive, and how to provide for its care. Nothing is left to chance.


7) The aquarist reads extensively- or participates in one or more online forum, club, or group, and regularly engages with and exchanges information with other hobbyists. The aquarist sees his/herself as part of a larger community.


8) Access to aquarium equipment is easy- Filters, pumps, electrical systems are all easily accessible for regular maintenance. This is intentional, designed from the start.



9) The aquarist is patient- Lessons learned by listening to others, or from success and failure, have been incorporated into the system design, stocking practices, maintenance procedures, and philosophy behind the aquarium. A very common trait of breeders, especially.


10) Quality equipment is used- The aquarist has invested in equipment that is designed and built for reliable, long-term service. Nothing is left to chance. Not always the most expensive stuff- but the best stuff is used.

 Again, this just scratches the surface, but I think it kind of touches on a few points that might be overlooked. I'd love to hear your thoughts on some that I might not have touched upon...Everyone can learn from everyone else!




Scott Fellman

Tannin Aquatics

September 16, 2015


Aquatic Botanicals in the real world. What exactly are these things?

You here us ramble on and on about seed pods, "aquatic botanicals", "substrate enrichment", and "environmental enhancement.”

What ARE "aquatic botanicals" that you hear us talk about? 

Well, they're natural products (generally leaves, bark, wood, and seed pods) that are used for both decorative and environmental enrichment purposes in our aquariums. "You sell twigs and nuts!" as one of my reef keeping friends profoundly declared! I suppose he wasn't too far off, although I think that was a bit over-generalized! 

Many fishes (particularly South American fishes like Tetras, Cichlids and catfishes), as well as numerous African and Southeast Asian species (Gouramis, Bettas, etc.) benefit from the tannic acids and other substances released by these products into the water.

It has long been understood that there are actually some antifungal and possibly even antibacterial benefits to so-called "blackwater", resulting in healthier fishes and more viable spawns. Some animals, such as Plecos and even ornamental shrimp, service supplemental nutrition from grazing on these materials.

And of course, creating areas of "leaf litter" and microhabitats of seed pods, etc. create areas for these fishes to spawn, forage, and shelter- much like in nature. They flat-out look cool! 

The bottom line for you as a hobbyist, is what varieties do you need? 

Great question, actually.

Deciding which seed pods and other botanicals are appropriate for you aquarium is largely dependent upon what types of fishes and other animals you’re keeping, and what type of aquarium you’re trying to create. For our discussion, I’ve broken down the aquarium types into three categories:

*Biotopic Representations- You’re trying to replicate an Amazonian “blackwater” stream, a Southeast Asian swamp, or a temporary pool in Africa.

*Breeding Setups- You need to manipulate environmental parameters to encourage, enable, or support breeding behavior in your fishes. No emphasis on aesthetics- it’s focused on a purpose.

*Specialized Situations- In other words, you’re using aquatic botanicals as a means to support animals like ornamental shrimp, or to act as a substrate on which to attach aquatic plants/mosses.

We’ll examine the varieties of botanicals that you could use in these situations, and give some recommendations. Of course, this very brief article is not the comprehensive treatise on the subject; rather, it’s a brief rundown of some things you can do. tannin offers a variety of botanicals for many different situations, and we’ll constantly update our offerings to reflect the diverse interests of aquarium hobbyists.

Today, we’ll examine one of my favorite biotopes- the “Leaf Litter Zone”. 

Leaf litter zones comprise one of the richest and most diverse biotopes in the tropical aquatic ecosystem, yet they are seldom replicated in the aquarium. I think this has been due, in large part- to the lack of continuous availability of products for the hobbyist to work with. My company,Tannin Aquatics, was founded to help make that scarcity  a thing of the past!

The thought behind this biotope can best be summarized in this interesting except from an academic paper on Blackwater leaf-litter communities by biologist Peter Alan Henderson, that is useful for those of us attempting to replicate these communities in our aquaria:

" within the litter is not a crowded, chaotic scramble for space and food. Each species occupies a sub-region defined by physical variables such as flow and oxygen content, water depth, litter depth and particle size…

...this subtle subdivision of space is the key to understanding the maintenance of diversity. While subdivision of time is also evident with, for example, gymnotids hunting by night and cichlids hunting by day, this is only possible when each species has its space within which to hide.”

In other words, different species inhabit different sections of the leaf litter, and we should consider this when creating and stocking our biotope systems...Neat stuff!

How would you construct a leaf litter zone in your tank? 


As hinted at in the excerpt above, you should use a variety of materials. For reference, I will recommend “aquatic botanicals” from our collection, as these will be ( I hope!) the most readily available materials for you to work with! 

In the aquarium, consider both practicality AND aesthetics when replicating this biotope. Much like in nature, you also want a diverse mixture of botanicals, some which may decompose rather quickly (such as Catappa leaves and Guava Leaves), and others which have "duration" and last much, much longer (like  Loquat leaves, ”Frita Pods", "Mariposa Pods", "Terra Sorrindo" Pods, "Encontro Pods", etc.).




You should also include some pods that last indefinitely, such as the "Tapete Pod", Coco Curls, and perhaps some "Lampada Pods" for good measure, to serve as permanent "anchor pieces" for your litter zone.



This is such an interesting biotope to recreate- and that's why we have the widest selection of aquatic botanicals in one place- to help you replicate and appreciate it's natural beauty and fascination!

Next time, we’ll take a look at how to use “aquatic botanicals” in breeding setups, to take advantage of their unique and beneficial properties!

Should you have any questions regarding these biotopes and recreating them in our aquaria, please feel free to contact me by email:


Stay Wet!


Scott Fellman

Tannin Aquatics



September 16, 2015


Guest Blog: Bringing an Apisto’s Home into Your House by William Garden

(Editor's note: I first met William Garden on Facebook as Tannin was starting up. He was an "early adapter" to our company, and a kindred spirit regarding biotope aquariums, husbandry, and his love of Apistogramma dwarf cichlids. Okay, his obsession Apistos (and his knowledge) goes way beyond mine, and it shines through in everything he does. As any obsessed fish geek would do, he recently started an online business, The Cichlid Garden, which I hope becomes your online source for some amazing Apistos! We've been fortunate at Tannin to have William's unique point of view and beautiful pics and videos grace our blog, Facebook, and other social media, and I'm thrilled to have him sharing this cool piece and his pics with us today! Enjoy!- Scott F.)


(Apistogramma sp. Winkelfleck male)

Apistos, oh the wonderful Apistogramma.  Did you know there are over 340 currently known species / collection-location-specific morphs?  Maybe you did, or maybe you didn’t, but that’s a huge amount.  So, what do I mean when I say "collection-location-specific morphs?"  That’s really just a fancy way to say that fish from one location are different enough from some in another that that they shouldn’t be lumped together.  For example, A. bitaeniata “Rio Tigre” and A. bitaeniata “Rio Pastaza” look dramatically different.  An untrained keeper may even consider them different species.  

(Apistogramma bitaeniata "Rio Pastaza" male)

So why is this possible?  Well, Apistos don’t like fast moving water. (already your first note to keep in mind when building them a tank)  At some point a few A. bitaeniata got washed along with too strong of flow, and down the river they went.  They were from that point separate from their kin and Darwin’s theory took hold.  This contributes to why this genus is so rich in its amount of species.  There are very few genera with more species in them than the genus Apistogramma.  It is one of the largest in South America.  These fish are not like tetra, they don’t swim up and down fast moving rivers.  They get separated from the main location, and suddenly they are off on their own and begin to evolve separately, eventually creating a completely new species.  The group is so large it’s been separated into several complexes (large groups of fish that likely have a common ancestor) and then those large complexes were divided into groups (smaller groups of fish that are much more closely related).  You could read up on these fish for years and still not be an expert, I know, because I’ve already done just that!  There is just too much information out there to learn.

So, since they don’t like fast moving water where do they live?  In general they live in small drainage ditches, canals, streams, shallow pools, tiny ponds, and puddles.  Places you don’t think have enough water for fish are some of the best Apistos collecting spots!  They call these igarapés.


(Apistogramma atahaulpa pair. ) 

Ok so enough with the introduction already, let’s talk about setting up a biotope for these fish to live in.  Now keep in mind these fish are from nearly the entire northern part of South America.  Their range is huge and there is no one setup is a biotope for all.  What I will discuss is merely guidelines.

First, you need to decide what you think a biotope should be for you.  My own personal tanks are not really biotopes in the most formal way of thinking.  A formal biotope is one which will contain only plants and fish from a very specific location in the world.  The sand will be the same color , the leaf litter will be from a tree of the region, or at the least something that looks the same, and if you were to go there in person you could scoop the fish in your tank out of the water there.  These are not the biotopes I create.  They are an amazing challenge to recreate, and very rewarding, however it was never my goal. 


("Ammo" and "Nitro", who happen to be Apistogramma cacatuoides "Triple Red" males doing what rival males do...)

My version of a biotope is a tank that looks and feels like a piece of nature.  Most Apistogramma biotopes do not have any submersed plant growth.  This would leave you with a missing link in nature’s circle of life.  Some people choose to fill this hole with floating plants.  Others choose terrestrial plants native to the location, and allow their roots to grow down into the tank.  I personally probably break the rule worse than any.  I take any old plant I like and stuff it in there if it will grow.  I use floating plants as well as submersed plants.  Plants play a critical role in nature.  They remove nitrates, waste, and even toxins from your water.  I personally don’t want to risk this, so I use lots of plants, both floating and submersed.  So decide what biotope means to you, and let’s proceed from there.  Don’t be held down by a formal definition of the word, do what you deem best and if people want to say it isn’t a biotope, who cares?  Call it something else if it suits you better.

So what do I feel is crucial to a good Apistogramma biotope?  The tint!  Does this mean your water needs to be brown?  No, not really, it isn’t uncommon for Apistos to be found in clear water without the stain of tannins.  However with or without the stain tannins are still there to some degree.  I do not recommend using any form of mechanical filtration to remove tannins.  Although some species are found in clear water, it is still beneficial to all species.  If you want to remove some of the coloration (I refuse to use the sinful word of DIScoloration) than do a water change.  A proper biotope will contain as much wood, leaves, seed pods, and sticks as you can muster.  Use as much or as little as you deem fit. 


So what don’t you put in?  For the most part you won’t find rocks in an Apisto biotope.  There are a few scattered around on occasion, maybe a small pebble here and there.  In general, however, it’s more likely they won’t be there.  In addition Apistos are found in very soft water that is quite acidic.  Soft Acidic water eats away rocks and dissolves them.  In your normal aquarium, a rock may not leech anything into the water column, but in an Apisto tank that same rock may raise the pH.  Just avoid them.

Your tank size is important.  A newly introduced male and female will often fight quite a bit.  When they have not yet bred the male gets pushy and will beat on the poor girl, but once she lays eggs the tank will belong to her.  Too small of a tank can really put a damper on things.  Keeping a new pair in too small of a tank will often result in you being left with only 1 fish.   Since Apistos don’t use vertical swimming space I give my recommendation in the floor plan of the tank.  For every fish, you need about a 12” by 12” area of floor space.  This means a tank 24” by 12” could house 2 fish.  A 24” by 24” tank could house 4 fish.  With this being said, I don’t recommend keeping 2 males in any tank that does not have at least 4 feet of width, regardless of depth.  My go to tank size for a pair of Apistos is a 20 gallon long tank.  For a trio I use a 30 or 40 gallon breeder, or often times I will keep only a pair in them.  I prefer pairs over trios, however most species are highly polygamous, or at the least polygamous at times when the opportunity is there.


(Apistogramma sp. Abacaxis male)

Use fine grain sand!  This one is important, even if it doesn’t seem so.  Apistos like to sift sand through their gills.  They do so to collect food, but it serves another purpose.  It is thought that to an Apisto, sifting sand is the same as brushing teeth is to a human.  It cleans their gills and keeps them parasite free.  Maybe it even helps their breath, who knows?  Either way make sure it is a very fine grade, as Apistos are small, and a large grain won’t go through their gills.  If you’re trying to keep it natural, brownish colored sand is the most likely candidate.  However I like black so it’s what I use.

Let there be light.  Now that the horrible joke is out of the way, you’re actually better off without much light.  They are surrounded by lots of leaf litter right?  Where there are leaves, there are trees.  Where they are trees, there is shade.  Apistos live most of their life in the shade.  They don’t need much light.

I’ll touch here on temperature.  You want to keep your temp anywhere from 76°F to 80°F.  I keep my tanks all at 79°F because I breed them.  Temperature plays a pivotal role (among other things) in determining the sex of young Apistos.  At 79°F you have the best odds of getting an even sex ratio.


(Some like it hot..Apistogramma cacatuoides "Triple Red" male)

The eternal scourge, algae!  Algae isn’t a bad thing.  We’ve grown to hate it, but it provides an important function.    It does the same thing plants do, cleans your water, and it harbors microscopic life that fry and even some adult Apistos like to feed on.  Don’t be afraid to let your algae grow a bit.  Surprisingly, if you keep the glass clean you can actually grow some in a very visually pleasing way.  If your dead set against it, try incorporating a moss into the scape somewhere.

Water chemistry is a fickle thing.  There are no set parameters for the genus Apistogramma, because of the huge amount of species, and range.  One thing in general though, they like the water very soft and acidic when possible.  All my tanks run at a TDS of anywhere from 20-60 and a pH of about 5.  Some species can however be found in mildly alkaline conditions or even medium hardness.  If you aren’t planning on using RO water, find out which species can stand a bit higher mineral content in their water.  Two examples I know of are A. cacatuoides, and A. sp. Winkelfleck.

In closing, this is merely a guide, not a rulebook.  Don’t feel tied down to what I say.  If you want to recreate an exact replica of the portion of river these fish come from, than do it!  Find out what lives there and stick to it strictly.  It can be a huge amount of fun.  If not, get creative, get weird, and break a few rules.  Do your homework, and learn about the areas your fish come from first.  If you want contact me and I’ll help you out!


William Garden (Chance Peragine)

September 13, 2015


The "Green Light" has been given!

Everyone who is married and keeps topical fishes understands what my friend, reef aquarium author/lecturer Tony Vargas, calls "The Spouse Factor!" 

You know, you need to get the "approval" of your significant other to move ahead on your plans for that new aquarium, fish room expansion, re-configuration project, etc. Oh, there are those of you who say that you don't need it- but let's be honest: When you re-do the rock work on your 125 Mbuna tank, your allegedly fish-disinterested spouse will make note, perhaps with just a causal comment, like "Hmm..I noticed the rocks looked a bit different." Or, if your spouse is more engaged than you might think, a comment like, "I though that you wanted a cave towards the CENTER of the tank?" Not a bad sign, because it indicates that your spouse perhaps sees the aquarium as more than just a "placeholder" in the otherwise orderly living room!

It's important to engage your spouse in the decision-making process, even if they seem to have little interest. Example, if you're selecting between two very different looking fishes that will play a big role in your tank- run it by your spouse first! Trust me, he/she will have a surprisingly strong opinion one way or another! If you're adding a piece of equipment (pump, filter, protein skimmer, etc.) that could potentially make sounds- you MUST run it by the spouse.

And an observation. Why is it that the ONLY time you spill water on the hardwood floor is the ONE time your spouse happens to walking by the tank while your doing a water change? "Honey, if the siphon hose is in the bucket, why are your feet getting wet?"


Smart aquarists know that a spouse who's at least semi-on board with your aquarium project is the best ally that you have- so do your best to be understanding, accommodating, and appreciative of the tolerance your spouse shows for our wet hobby!

If you're really lucky, like me, your spouse might play a more active role. This was exemplified the other day when my wife told me, "You really should get a couple of new tanks in here! I mean, you own a coral facility and a freshwater company!" 

Wow. Pinch me, I'm dreaming.

Stay wet...ur, dry..


Scott Fellman

Tannin Aquatics


September 12, 2015


Serious fish hobbyists are different. Really.

I was talking to a non-fish person the other day, and she asked what it really meant to be a "fish person", and what the differences are between the cichlid people,  reefers, freshwater planted types, Guppy breeders, etc. I thought that maybe we are all the same- fish people...Well, we are, to some extent...but there is one distinction…Really "serious" hobbyists are a bit different.

So I left with the nagging question of "What makes serious fish people so...different?" in my head. I had this bunch of thoughts as to how I'd describe myself...and it made me think about just what makes a "serious hobbyist" different than other fish people...

I'm a serious hobbyist.

I don't dabble in aquariums. I'm obsessed with them.

I know that keeping aquatic life alive requires understanding, skill, patience, and good habits.

I know that keeping a successful aquarium long term requires me to take certain steps that many other fish people aren't willing to do. 

I regard my aquariums as microcosms of nature; learning tools, an experience..their main function is not to provide a piece of decor in my home.

I have procedures for every scenario, every problem playing out in the back of my head. I have other obsessed hobbyists to share these thoughts with. We are a community.

I obsessively maintain my tanks based on husbandry methods that work for me; skills learned and honed from years of practice, towering successes, and humbling failures. I listen to other aquarists, then do whatever I darned well please, if I feel my way is better...And then I try theirs, when my ideas fail! I'm stubborn..and proud.


I don't chase down every hot trend, obsess over every new gadget. I try things that work for my animals. I geek out over obscure stuff, however.

I'm not afraid to try new stuff, but I always consider the impact of any new practice, procedure, or piece of gear.

I support those who are propagating fishes, plants  and corals, because I understand that the world's rivers, lakes, streams, and eefs need our help. As a serious hobbyist, I know that the future of the hobby- the future of the world's aquatic environments- is in part dependent upon how successful I am at keeping my animals healthy, and sharing my stories with others.


I screw stuff up all the time. And when I do, I share my errors with other aquarists, get up again, over an over, and try to learn from them.

I am eager to hear about what my fellow hobbyists are doing, because that seemingly crazy idea might be the basis for massive success.

I realize that learning is a lifelong process in the hobby. I want to be doing this for the rest of my life.

I know that aquarium keeping is not just a's a lifestyle.

I am part of a tribe; a community, which grows and nurtures and shares ideas, concepts, experiences, and animals. 

I am a part of a larger whole, which is much greater than the sum of it's parts.

I am a serious hobbyist. And so are you.

And I'm pretty darned proud of that.

Why are you proud to be a serious aquarium hobbyist? What do you feel makes us different than the rest of the casual fish keepers out there?

Let's hear it!

Stay wet...


Scott Fellman

Tannin Aquatics

September 08, 2015


Getting to the bottom of things- creating a more realistic substrate for the biotope aquarium.

If you're a geeky hobbyist  like me, you're always thinking of different ways to do stuff we seem to take for granted, or have down a certain way for years.

One great example of this is the substrate materials that we use in our aquariums. Traditionally, we've used stuff like gravels, sand, clay materials, etc. These all work quite well, and there are substrates for virtually every application. Many look pretty cool, and are both functional (as in the plant "soils") and practical (like the many different sizes of sand/gravels offered for aquarium use).

I'm really into substrates. Specifically, creating substrates that are a reasonable representation of the bottom of streams, tributaries, and garages, as found in the Amazon basin. Each one of these has some unique characteristics, and each one presents an interesting creative challenge for the intrepid hobbyist. Until quite recently, the most common materials we had to work with when attempting to replicate these substrates were sand, natural and colored gravels, and clay-comprised planted aquarium substrates.

If I have something to say about the matter, you'll soon be incorporating a wide variety of other materials into your biotope aquarium substrate! 

If you've seen pictures and videos taken underwater in tropical streams (again, I'm pulling heavily from the Amazonian region), you'll note that there is a lot of loose, soil-like material over a harder mud/sand substrate. Obviously, using an entirely mud-based substrate in an aquarium, although technically possible- will result in a yucky mess whenever you disturb the material during routine maintenance and other tasks. You can, however, mix in some other materials with the more commonly found sand.

So, exactly what materials am I referring to here?

Well, you could start with a thin layer of aquarium-grade sand, and build from there. We will soon be offering a really cool coconut-based substrate supplement material  (called "Fundo Tropical") that looks and behaves very similar to the material that you see on the upper layers of the bottom of many streams and other aquatic environments. You'd mix a very thin (like 1/2"-3/4")  layer of this material into the uppermost layer of your sand or gravel. It has a great color and texture, with interesting fiberous structure. It has the added advantage of staying "down" nicely once you prepare it for use (boiling is the preferred method). It also lasts a very long time, becoming essentially inert after it releases it's initial tannins into the water column. The intricate matrix it forms will become a very useful foraging area for many fishes, hosting small benthic life forms, just like natural stream bottoms do.

The next step in building a realistic bottom would be to add some harder, heavier leaf-like materials. For this, we suggest aquatic botanicals like our "Frita Pods", "Encontro Pods", "Terra Sorrindo",  "Mariposa Pods", Banana Stem Pieces, Coco Curls, "Teardrop Pods", "Tapete Pods", and "Helix Pods." All of these materials will last an extremely long time, and help serve as a "top boundary layer" for the "Fundo Tropico" material. In addition, you could add some of the more "permanent" types of pods, such as "Heart Pods", "Estalo Pods" and others to add some interest, texture, and height.







 Finally, you'd add some leaves, such as Catappa, Guava, and Loquat. Catappa are probably the most "expendable" leaves, as they tend to decompose relatively quickly, followed by Guava leaves, and finally, Loquat. Mixing several varieties will create a diverse assemblage of natural materials that will break down, much as they do in nature, providing tannins, organics acids, and of course, imparting a brownish tint to the water that we find really attractive!



"Wait a minute, Scott. Your proposing that I add a whirl lot of stuff that may trap detritus, uneaten food, solid fish waste, etc.- and some of it will break down in the process! Sounds like a recipe for a lot of debris in the system!" 

(Oh, say it- you wanted to tell me it's a maintenance liability and sort of a mess if you're not meticulous and diligent in maintaining it).

Well, yeah. This kind of combination of natural materials can create a potentially messy substrate area if you are not a careful feeder and tend to let things go. So, being the diligent aquarist that you are- just be conscientious about maintenance!

This is one of the challenges in creating a truly realistic biopic simulation in your aquarium. It's absolutely not impossible to do this..It just requires some discipline, care, and prudent maintenance to make sure that you don't create an aerobic swamp in your system!

It's important to have adequate water movement, creation, and overall good husbandry when attempting such a substrate.

The rewards are a)the most realistic-looking stream bottom you've ever seen in an aquarium, b)water conditions similar to those found in many natural aquatic environments, and c)more natural behaviors- including feeding, foraging, and yes- breeding- of your fishes accustomed to this type of environment in nature.

Seems worth exploring further, doesn't it?





September 08, 2015


"LL4" is looking good!

As you know, we test everything we offer- before we offer it! One of my favorite tests is what I call the "long term submersion test"- a really fancy way of saying that we like to leave our aquatic botanicals submerged for a few weeks to see how long they last.

Well, before we released the Tannin Dried Loquat Leaves, we put them through this test.

One of the "test subjects", known as "LL4", has been down just about 4 weeks. This leaf has shown no signs of decomposing. Other than recruiting a slight biofilm, this leaf looks essentially like it did the day it went down...And it was not boiled, BTW (perhaps this contributed to it's longevity?). It sank on it's own within 48 hours.

This bodes well, because it makes these leaves candidates for a longer-term part of a mixed leaf litter bed in your tank! Sweet!

Amazing what gets me excited these days...

Stay geeky...

Stay Wet.


Scott Fellman

Tannin Aquatics

September 07, 2015


Don't cry- the "Teardrop Pod" is here!

We were looking for a botanical to help fill what I call the 'transitional" range- a pod that looks good in a mix of leaf litter, which still having a bit of "heft" to it like a seed pod...And, we found it! The "Teardrop Pod", named because of its distinctive look- is a real "melange" of characteristics: Some specimens look on one side a lot like the "Lampada Pod", which the inside bears a fleeting resemblance to the "Capsula Pod", with a touch of "Concha Pod" thrown in for good measure. On the other hand, it also looks sort of like the "Encontro Pod" in some superficial other words, it's a very "mixed-up" aquatic botanical!

It would look great as a more permanent component of a "leaf litter" bed, or even standing alone..Shrimp seem to love munching on the inside of the pod, which is a bit softer, but not quite as soft as a "Capsula Pod"- as it slowly decomposes.

Looks, utility, and affordability- a great combination...We're excited about this one!

Stay Wet!

Scott Fellman

Tannin Aquatics


September 04, 2015


The green part of our obsession...plants!

As you know, we've just started pushing you into all sorts of cool new hobby directions, and it's really exciting to see many hobbyists trying all sorts of new things, such as Paludariums, Ripariums, and full-blown terrariums.
Obviously, different plants require different types of environments, and it's important to get an understanding about what type of plant is appropriate in what kind of setup. My friend, Devin Biggs of Selva Terrarium, maker of "Pillbug" orchid mounts and terrarium planters, has provided me with a quick list that summarizes the different kinds of plants and setups used in the various plant related hobbies:
  • Fully-aquatic plants - live mostly underwater. These are the plants grown in traditional planted aquariums.
  • Marginal aquatic plants - grow in shallow water or in mud along the edge of the water. Some kinds grow on rocks in streams. Ripariums and paludariums are appropriate for these plants.
  • Epiphytic plants - grow on the trunks and branches of trees, especially in tropical forests. Most orchids are epiphytes. 3D backgrounds or branch features in terrariums or vivariums often feature mounted epiphytes. Epiphytes in an orchidarium are usually planted on mounts.
  • Terrestrial plants - are rooted in soil in upland (away from water) areas.

As you can see, there are many different types of plants that may be used in our displays- and many different display types from which to choose! 


In upcoming blogs, we'll take a look at what plants you should use in each type of system, how to grow them, and what they'll do for your system!

Stay Wet! (And green!)

Scott Fellman

Tannin Aquatics